**Objective CAML**, also known as **Ocaml** or **O'Caml** for short, is an advanced programming language based on the ML family.
Caml stands for *Categorically Abstract Machine Language*.

To the functional and imperative features of Standard ML, it adds object-oriented concepts and some minor syntax differences.

Ocaml provides both a bytecode compiler and a native code compiler, and the latter has been ported to a large number of platforms. The code generated by the native compiler is typically comparable to C/C++ in speed.

Powerful features of the language include a static type system, pattern matching, an exception mechanism, and automatic memory management. Ocaml distributions include general purpose libraries and are available for a wide range of platforms, including Unix and Windows.

Ocaml is used in a wide range of applications including thoerem proving and program analysis. It is used as an introductory language in many places, including Caltech.

### Example code

(* List manipulation *)

(* The procedures below work on lists of any type *)(* Trees *)(* Length of a list *) let rec length = function |[] -> 0 |x::xs -> 1 + length xs;;

(* Insertion sort *) (* An order relation must exist *) let rec sort = function |[] -> [] |x::xs -> insert x (sort xs) and insert e = function |[] -> [e] |x::xs -> if x > e then e::x::xs else x::(insert e xs);;

# let l = ["The"; "quick"; "brown"; "fox"; "jumps"; "over"; "the"; "lazy"; "dog"];

# length l;; - : int = 7

# sort l;; - : string list = ["The"; "brown"; "dog"; "fox"; "jumps"; "lazy"; "over"; "quick"; "the"]

(* Definition of a binary tree, of any type 'a *) type 'a tree = Node | Tree of ('a tree * 'a * 'a tree) ;;(* Search of a root using the dichotomy method *)let a = Tree(Node, 4, Tree(Node, 2, Node)) ;; (* Height of a tree *) let rec height = function |Node -> 0 |Tree(left, _, right) -> 1 + max (height left) (height right) ;;

# height a;; - : int = 2

let rec dicho f min max eps = let fmin = f min and fmax = f max in if fmin *. fmax > 0. then failwith "No root" else if max -. min < eps then (min, max) (* return an interval *) else let mid = (min +. max) /. 2. in if (f mid) *. fmin < 0. then dicho f min mid eps else dicho f mid max eps ;;(* Approximation of the square root of 2 *) # dicho (fun x -> x *. x -. 2.) 0. 10. 0.000000001;; - : float * float = (1.4142135618, 1.41421356238)

*See also:*

*F sharp programming language*

#### External Links

- http://caml.inria.fr/ -- O'Caml official website
- http://pauillac.inria.fr/caml/ -- O'Caml resources
- http://www.bagley.org/~doug/shootout/ -- Comparsion of the speed of various languages (with favorable results for Ocaml)
- http://www.merjis.com/richj/computers/ocaml/tutorial/ -- O'Caml tutorial